Why Do Women Have Longer Lives Than Men?

Why Do Women Have Longer Lives Than Men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women have a longer life span than men? And why the advantage has grown as time passes? The evidence is sketchy and we're left with only limited answers. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer life spans than men, however, we aren't sure how significant the impact of each factor is.

We are aware that women live longer than males, regardless of weight. However, this is not due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a new boy.1

This chart illustrates that, افضل كريم للشعر even though women enjoy an advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men, while in Bhutan the difference is less than half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in the richer countries than it is today.
Let's examine how the advantage of women in terms of longevity has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies at the time of birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men in the United States live longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used to be very small, but it grew substantially during the last century.

It is possible to verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with data by clicking the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, افضل كريم للشعر and Sweden.