Why Women Live Longer Than Men?

Why Women Live Longer Than Men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And افضل كريم للشعر how has this advantage gotten larger in the past? The evidence is sketchy and we only have some solutions. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral as well as environmental factors which all play a part in the longevity of women over men, افضل كريم للشعر we do not know how much each one contributes.

We are aware that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. But, this is not due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can expect to live longer than her younger brother.

The chart above shows that the advantage of women exists in all countries, global differences are significant. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the difference is only half a year.

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In rich countries the female advantage in longevity was smaller
Let's look at how the gender advantage in longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies at the time of birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in America live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is increasing: While the female advantage in terms of life expectancy was quite small It has significantly increased with time.

You can check if these are applicable to other countries with data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.